1800 United States Census
Population schedules consisted of large sheets with rows and columns. The schedules were arranged by place, such as township or post office. The places were not filed in any particular order. The arrangement of families on a schedule is normally in the order in which the enumerator visited the households. The original schedules are well preserved at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. They were microfilmed in the 1950s and 1960s. The schedules for some counties in varying censuses are missing.
Federal census takers were asked to record information about every person who was in each household on the census day, which was the first Monday in August for 1800. A census taker might have visited a house on a later date, but the information he collected was supposed to be about the people who were in the house on the census day. The basic census enumeration unit was the county. Each county was divided into enumeration districts, one for each enumerator. The completed forms were sent to the Commerce Department’s Census Office in Washington, D.C.
This census (1800) provides names for heads of household, for about 10 to 15 percent of the population, and provides only a number count for the others.
The U.S. federal census was conducted each decade from 1790 to the present. This information pertains to censuses conducted in 1800.
The U.S. federal census was taken at the beginning of every decade to apportion the number of representatives that a state could send to the House of Representatives.
Federal censuses are usually reliable, depending on the knowledge of the informant and the care of the census enumerator. Information may have been given to a census taker by any member of the family or by a neighbor. Some information may have been incorrect or deliberately falsified.
The 1800 census includes the following genealogical information:
City, county and state in which census was taken
Name of head of household
Number of free white males in household under 10 years
Number of free white males in household between ages 10-16
Number of free white males in household between ages 16-26
Number of free white males in household between ages 26-45
Number of free white males in household 45 years and older
Number of free white females in household under 10 years
Number of free white females in household between ages 10-16
Number of free white females in household between ages 16-26
Number of free white females in household between ages 26-45
Number of free white females in household ages 45 and older
Number of all other persons in household
Number of slaves in each household